The Chitta (Mind) is a spectacular result of nature. There are 2 elements in this world – Root (Jad) and Animate (Chetna).
Those things which do not have consciousness are called root, such as houses, rock, etc.
The things that grow are called consciousness, such as trees, plants, insects etc.
Similarly, till we are alive, we are considered to be conscious and when we die, our body is considered to be root.
So, if we define human life, then it comes in two concepts – root and consciousness.
The root is our body which is made up of five elements and through Prana, the vitality of the body comes into consciousness through which it becomes alive.
The general human experience is limited to this, but the Yogis have experienced something different from this. They say that there is a Chitta inside us, and everything is lighted only through the Chitta.
Let me explain this thing with an example.
We all have a bulb in our house. There are 2 things in a bulb – outside glass and inside tungsten filament. The filament is self-illuminated, through which the light of this filament shines outwards through the glass.
If there is a black layer on top of that glass, then the light of that filament will not be able to come out. In such a situation, we have to clean the black layer of that glass.
So here, the bulb is our body, the filament is our Prana or soul, and that glass is our Chitta. That is, through the Chitta, the light of our Prana falls on the whole existence.
So the source of light in our lives is the soul, but its manifestation is happening through the mind. Through the mind, we are feeling all the perceptions and the business of our life is only going through the Chitta.
What is Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodha?
We have discussed this that Patanjali Yoga Darshana relies on Chitta purification and Maharishi Patanjali has said Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodha in 2nd Sutra of 1st Chapter, which means the detention of the Chitta Vritti (thoughts of the mind) is Yoga.
According to Maharishi Patanjali Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodha sutra, the inaccuracy of the mind (Chitta) is his attitude (Vritti). When these impurities are finished then we become aware of the nature of that self-element.
The black layer on top of the bulb is its inaccuracy similarly to our right and wrong birth deeds are the layer of impurity on our mind.
5 Stages of Mind/Types of Chitta: Kshipta, Moodha, Vikshipta, Ekagra, and Niruddha.
During the Sadhana, those changes which are made in the mind of a seeker are called the state of Chitta. As we said above, that Chitta is a spectacular result of nature.
There are three qualities in nature – Satya, Raj, and Tam. These 3 qualities are also found in Chitta. Due to these three qualities, changes in the state of the mind happen.
Satya or Satguna: The work of Satya is light.
Raj or Rajoguna: The work of Raj is the activity, whatever we do in our life, we do it on the basis of Raj quality.
Tam or Tamguna: And the work of Tam is the situation.
Maharishi Vyas has divided the stages of the mind into 5 forms-
In this stage, the Raj quality of our mind is the main factor. Because of excessive thoughts, activity is high in this stage. The reason behind this is anger and hatred. This is the situation of social and earthbound humans who only live for their family and their selfish interests. If they do religion work or donate, then they want their benefit from it as well. So the situation of a general person’s mind is a Kshipta Stage.
Moodha is considered to be the lowest stage. In this stage, the Tamguna of our mind is the main factor. The worst acts happening in the world are due to this stage. The reason behind this is work, anger, greed etc., due to which the person does not think that what is right and what is wrong.
There is a fluctuation between Sat and Raj in this stage. When the Satguna increase, then our tendency proceeds towards truth, righteousness, and goodness. When the Rajguna increase then our tendency starts drowning towards the world.
So the Vikshipta Stage is that stage of a person in which he/she wants to be a gentle and wants to do some good work in his life. Those who want to attach their deeds to yoga and give them the form of Karm Yoga, their condition is of a Vikshipta Stage.
Now, Kshipta, Moodha, and Vikshipta are the stages of normal humans. But Ekagra and Nirodha stages are related to Yogis.
In this stage, the Satguna of our mind is the main factor. By continuous practice, when the flow of thoughts of our mind starts moving towards one side that state is known as Ekagra Stage. Through this, we know that whatever is in the world is a myth.
At this stage, the three qualities (Sat, Raj, and Tam) are prohibited, that is why it is known as Niruddha Stage. All the three qualities become absorbed in their respective positions and from where they originated in nature, they go back there. This is the poignant state of yoga and this is the highest place of yoga.
So if the worldly human beings go away from their states and want to go into these stages of Yogis, then they have to follow the rules of Ashtanga Yoga of Maharishi Patanjali.
Now, what is Chitta Vritti? We use these terms much time above, let’s understand what is Chitta Vritti
Let’s understand this through an example.
Suppose there is a bucket filled with water. If we throw stones or water drops in that silent water of bucket, the waves are born in it. In the same way in the initial state, the mind becomes calm like water because it is full of Satguna. But when it comes in contact with the external nature through the mind and senses, then there are fluctuations in his Raj and Tam, through which many Vritti’s are born in the mind.
In simple words, the continuous and uncountable thoughts in our mind are known as Chitta Vritti. Maharishi Patanjali divided these Vritti’s into 5 parts.
5 Types of Vritti: Pramaan, Viparyay, Vikalpa, Nidra, and Smriti.
Maharishi Patanjali said in the 6th number sutra of the 1st Pada of yoga Darshana – प्रमाणविपर्ययविकल्पनिद्रा-स्मृतयः।. Having real knowledge of these five Vritti’s it can make us powerful, while it can also be painful for us.
Pramaan (Correct Knowledge)
It is the highest state of the Chitta, through which we interview the reality. The Pramaan is made up of the word Prama. Prama means the real knowledge that all seekers search for. Pramaan is actually the highest state of our mind which is normally found within us in an undeveloped stage.
Maharishi Patanjali has given 3 sources to reach this power – Pratyaksh (Evident), Anumaan (Guess) and Aagam (Proceed).
Viparyay (Incorrect Knowledge)
It means opposite knowledge. Suppose you saw a rope and you thought it is a snake, but when you go near then you see it is a rope, this is a reversible knowledge. And as long as there is darkness inside us, this reversible knowledge remains inside us.
The imaginations inside us are choice or option. We do many such fantasies that are not in our patience. So we should make our imaginations positive and with the help of imaginations power, we can move on the yoga path.
Our sleep must be thoughtless. So whenever you go to sleep, go as a seeker.
The repeated manifestation of experienced subjects is called memory, like the memory of your 2 months ago journey. But Maharishi Patanjali has given a different concept of memory here. Here memory means your whole life impressions.
So our life moves through these five instincts. So if we recognize these powers then it can be pleasurable for us. And if we do not recognize these powers then the same instincts can become painful for us.